Coking Coal

These coals, when heated in the absence of air, from coherent beads, free from volatiles, with strong and porous mass, called coke.

These have coking properties
Mainly used in steel making and metallurgical industries
Also used for hard coke manufacturing

Semi Coking Coal

These coals, when heated in the absence of air, from coherent beads not strong enough to be directly fed into the blast furnace. Such coals are blended with coking coal in adequate proportion to make coke.

These have comparatively less coking properties than coking coal
Mainly used as blend-able coal in steel making, merchant coke manufacturing and other metallurgical industries

NLW Coking Coal

This coal is not used in metallurgical industries. Because of higher ash content, this coal is not acceptable for washing in washeries. This coal is used for power utilities and non-core sector consumers.

Non-Coking Coal

These are coals without coking properties.

Mainly used as thermal grade coal for power generation

Also used for cement, fertilizer, glass, ceramic, paper, chemical and brick manufacturing, and for other heating purposes.

Hard Coal

Hard coke is formed from coking / semi-coking coal through the process of carbonization.

 ► Mainly used in metallurgical industries

  Also used in industrial plants utilizing furnaces

Washed and Beneficiated Coal

These coals have undergone the process of coal washing or coal beneficiation, resulting in value addition of coal
due to reduction in ash percentage.

Used in manufacturing of hard coke for steel making
Beneficiated and washed non-coking coal is used mainly for power generation
Beneficiated non-coking coal is used by cement, sponge iron and other industrial plants


Middlings are by-products of the three stage coal washing / beneficiation process, as a fraction of feed raw coal.

Used for power generation

Also used by domestic fuel plants, brick manufacturing units, cement plants, industrial plants, etc.


Rejects are the products of coal beneficiation process after separation of cleans and / or middlings, as a fraction of feed raw coal.

Used for Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) Boilers for power generation, road repairs, briquette
(domestic fuel) making, land filling, etc.

CILCoke / LTC Coke

CIL Coke / LTC Coke is a smokeless, environment friendly product of the Dankuni Coal Complex, obtained through low temperature carbonization.

Used in furnaces and kilns of industrial units

Also used as domestic fuel by halwais, hotels, etc.

Coal Fines / Coke Fines

These are the screened fractions of feed raw coal and LTC coke / CIL Coke respectively, obtained from the Dankuni Coal Complex and other coke oven plants.

Used in industrial furnaces as well as for domestic purposes

TAR / Heavy Oil / Soft Pitch

These are products from Dankuni Coal Complex using low temperature carbonization of non-coking coal in vertical retorts.

Used in furnaces and boilers of industrial plants as well as power houses, oil, dye, pharmaceutical industries, etc


Coking Coal
Grade Parameter
Steel  I Ash not exceeding 15%
Steel  II Ash exceeding 15% but not exceeding 18%
Washery  I Ash exceeding 18% but not exceeding 21%
Washery  II Ash exceeding 21% but not exceeding 24%
Washery  III Ash exceeding 24% but not exceeding 28%
Washery  IV  Ash exceeding 28% but not exceeding 35%
Semi Coking Coal
Grade Parameter
Semi Coking  I Ash + moisture not exceeding 19%
Semi Coking  II Ash + moisture exceeding 19% but not exceeding 24%
Non Coking Coal
A Exceeding 6200
B Exceeding 5600 but not exceeding 6200
C Exceeding 4940 but not exceeding 5600
D Exceeding 4200 but not exceeding 4940
E Exceeding 3360 but not exceeding 4200
F Exceeding 2400 but not exceeding 3360
G Exceeding 1300 but not exceeding 2400
Assam Coal
A 6200 - 6299
B 5600 – 6199
Hard Coke
Grade  Ash %
By Product Premium Not exceeding 25%
By Product Ordinary Exceeding 25% but not exceeding 30%
Beehive Premium  Not exceeding 27%
Beehive Superior Exceeding 27% but not exceeding 31%
Beehive Ordinary Exceeding 31% but not exceeding 36%


Hard Coke
Industry Type of Coal Required
Steel making Coking and semi-coking coal, direct feed andwashed; blendable coal; low ash % Assam and Raniganj coal.
Steel making, sponge iron industry Non-coking coal of high Initial Deformation
Temperature (IDT) (>1200 degrees Celcius)
Cokeries / coke oven plants Coking and semi-coking coal
Briquette making / domestic fuel making Semi-coking and non-coking coal; middling
& rejects of washeries
Special Smokeless Fuel (SSF) Semi-coking coal of Coking Index 8 – 10
Power sector Non-coking coal; middlings of coking coal
washeries; washed coal of non-coking coal
Cement sector Non-coking coal; middlings of coking coal
Glass and potteries Long Flame non-coking coal
Cast iron castings Hard coke
Steel castings Non-coking coal
Bricks Non-coking coal; middlings of coking coal
Old boilers Superior grades of non-coking coal
Halwais, domestic use, hotels, etc. Non-coking coal; CIL Coke / LTC Coke.

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